Art history biography essay template
This article is about the art history biography essay template concept of art.
For the group of creative disciplines, see The arts. The three classical branches of art are painting, sculpture and architecture. Works of art can tell stories or simply express an aesthetic truth or feeling. Panorama of a section of A Thousand Li of Mountains and Rivers, a 12th-century painting by Song dynasty artist Wang Ximeng. Artistic works may serve practical functions, in addition to their decorative value. Over time, philosophers like Plato, Aristotle, Socrates and Kant, among others, questioned the meaning of art. With regards to the literary art and the musical arts, Aristotle considered epic poetry, tragedy, comedy, dithyrambic poetry and music to be mimetic or imitative art, each varying in imitation by medium, object, and manner.
The second, and more recent, sense of the word art as an abbreviation for creative art or fine art emerged in the early 17th century. Fine art refers to a skill used to express the artist’s creativity, or to engage the audience’s aesthetic sensibilities, or to draw the audience towards consideration of more refined or finer work of art. Often, if the skill is being used in a common or practical way, people will consider it a craft instead of art. Likewise, if the skill is being used in a commercial or industrial way, it may be considered commercial art instead of fine art. On the other hand, crafts and design are sometimes considered applied art. The nature of art has been described by philosopher Richard Wollheim as «one of the most elusive of the traditional problems of human culture».
During the Romantic period, art came to be seen as «a special faculty of the human mind to be classified with religion and science». The oldest documented forms of art are visual arts, which include creation of images or objects in fields including today painting, sculpture, printmaking, photography, and other visual media. Renaissance art had a greatly increased emphasis on the realistic depiction of the material world, and the place of humans in it, reflected in the corporeality of the human body, and development of a systematic method of graphical perspective to depict recession in a three-dimensional picture space. The stylized signature of Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire was written in Islamic calligraphy. It reads «Mahmud Khan son of Abdulhamid is forever victorious». The Great Mosque of Kairouan in Tunisia, also called the Mosque of Uqba, is one of the finest, most significant and best preserved artistic and architectural examples of early great mosques. Dated in its present state from the 9th century, it is the ancestor and model of all the mosques in the western Islamic lands.
In the east, Islamic art’s rejection of iconography led to emphasis on geometric patterns, calligraphy, and architecture. Painting by Song dynasty artist Ma Lin, circa 1250. The history of twentieth-century art is a narrative of endless possibilities and the search for new standards, each being torn down in succession by the next. Modernism, the idealistic search for truth, gave way in the latter half of the 20th century to a realization of its unattainability. Adorno said in 1970, «It is now taken for granted that nothing which concerns art can be taken for granted any more: neither art itself, nor art in relationship to the whole, nor even the right of art to exist.
In The Origin of the Work of Art, Martin Heidegger, a German philosopher and a seminal thinker, describes the essence of art in terms of the concepts of being and truth. The creative arts are often divided into more specific categories, typically art history biography essay template perceptually distinguishable categories such as media, genre, styles, and form. In general there are three schools of philosophy regarding art, focusing respectively on form, content, and context. Extreme Intentionalism holds that authorial intent plays a decisive role in the meaning of a work of art, conveying the content or essential main idea, while all other interpretations can be discarded. Finally, the developing theory of post-structuralism studies art’s significance in a cultural context, such as the ideas, emotions, and reactions prompted by a work.
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The cultural context often reduces to the artist’s techniques and intentions, in which case analysis proceeds along lines similar to formalism and intentionalism. Art can connote a sense of trained ability or mastery of a medium. Art can also simply refer to the developed and efficient use of a language to convey meaning with immediacy and or depth. Art can be defined as an act of expressing feelings, thoughts, and observations. There is an understanding that is reached with the material as a result of handling it, which facilitates one’s thought processes. A common view is that the epithet «art», particular in its elevated sense, requires a certain level of creative expertise by the artist, whether this be a demonstration of technical ability, an originality in stylistic approach, or a combination of these two.
A common contemporary criticism of some modern art occurs along the lines of objecting to the apparent lack of skill or ability required in the production of the artistic object. Art has had a great number of different functions throughout its history, making its purpose difficult to abstract or quantify to any single concept. This does not imply that the purpose of Art is «vague», but that it has had many unique, different reasons for being created. Some of these functions of Art are provided in the following outline. The non-motivated purposes of art are those that are integral to being human, transcend the individual, or do not fulfill a specific external purpose.
Basic human instinct for harmony, balance, rhythm. Imitation, then, is one instinct of our nature. Next, there is the instinct for ‘harmony’ and rhythm, meters being manifestly sections of rhythm. Art provides a way to experience one’s self in relation to the universe.
This experience may often come unmotivated, as one appreciates art, music or poetry. The most beautiful thing we can experience is the mysterious. It is the source of all true art and science. Art provides a means to express the imagination in non-grammatic ways that are not tied to the formality of spoken or written language. Unlike words, which come in sequences and each of which have a definite meaning, art provides a range of forms, symbols and ideas with meanings that are malleable. In many cultures, art is used in rituals, performances and dances as a decoration or symbol.
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However, interpretation of those differences is almost always open to further investigation.