Biology term paper

The blue lizard spandrel biology term paper the island syndrome.

In evolutionary biology, a spandrel is a phenotypic characteristic that is a byproduct of the evolution of some other characteristic, rather than a direct product of adaptive selection. The term «spandrel» originated as an architectural word for the roughly triangular space between the tops of two adjacent arches biology term paper the ceiling. These spaces were not actually utilized until later on, when artists realized they could make designs and paint in these small areas, enhancing the overall design of the building. Evolutionary biology uses the term spandrel for features of an organism arising as byproducts, rather than adaptations, that have no clear benefit for the organism’s fitness and survival. In response to the position that spandrels are just small, unimportant byproducts, Gould and Lewontin argue that «we must not recognize that small means unimportant. Spandrels can be as prominent as primary adaptations».

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A main example used by Gould and Lewontin is the human brain. In 1982, Gould and Vrba introduced the term «exaptation» for characteristics that enhance fitness in their present role but were not built for that role by natural selection. Exaptations may be divided into two subcategories: pre-adaptations and spandrels. Gould and Lewontin’s proposal generated a large literature of critique, which Gould characterised as being grounded in two ways. First, a terminological claim was offered that the «spandrels» of Basilica di San Marco were not spandrels at all, but rather were pendentives.

Ian Kluge criticizes the whole subject of spandrels to be bogged down in a definitional debate. He argues it is not entirely clear what is and is not a spandrel. Pinker has described music as a spandrel to the enlarged brain. Dunbar found this conclusion odd, and stated that «it falls foul of what we might refer to as the Spandrel Fallacy: ‘I haven’t really had time to determine empirically whether or not something has a function, so I’ll conclude that it can’t possibly have one. Dunbar states that there are two potential roles of music in evolution: «One is its role in mating and mate choice, the other is its role in social bonding.

According to terror management theory, the human survival instinct conflicts with the knowledge of our mortality, which arose explicitly with human intelligence. This led to the creation of human culture to counter death anxiety: to activities and beliefs that make humans feel that they are individuals of value in a world of durable or even eternal meaning. Chapter 1: The Intellectual Challenge of Morphological Evolution: A Case for Variational Structuralism. Exaptation — a missing term in the science of form».

Drive On Through: A Review of Sam Harris’s Free Will Part 1″. Robin Dunbar, «On the Evolutionary Function of Song and Dance,» in N. The Spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian Paradigm: A Critique of the Adaptationist Programme», Proc. Darwin’s Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of Life. The Faculty of Language: What Is It, Who Has It, and How Did It Evolve? The Faculty of Language: What’s Special About It?

They writing phd dissertation got academic achievements and brilliant writing experience that guarantee the extent of their knowledge, and their mastery of the written word.
In the process, newspapers helped change how politics operated in critical reading and critical thinking constitutional monarchy of Brazil.

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