Biomedical instrumentation thesis

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Near-IR absorption spectrum of dichloromethane showing complicated overlapping overtones of mid IR absorption features. Near-infrared spectroscopy is based on molecular overtone and combination vibrations. Such transitions are forbidden by the selection rules of quantum mechanics. The discovery of near-infrared energy is ascribed to William Herschel in the 19th century, but the first industrial application began in the 1950s. This optical method can be used in a number of fields of science including physics, physiology, or medicine. It is only in the last few decades that NIRS began to be used as a medical tool for monitoring patients. Common incandescent or quartz halogen light bulbs are most often used as broadband sources of near-infrared radiation for analytical applications.

The type of detector used depends biomedical instrumentation thesis on the range of wavelengths to be measured. Instruments intended for chemical imaging in the NIR may use a 2D array detector with an acousto-optic tunable filter. Multiple images may be recorded sequentially at different narrow wavelength bands. In the same way, the range of some mid-IR instruments may extend into the NIR. In these instruments, the detector used for the NIR wavelengths is often the same detector used for the instrument’s «main» range of interest.

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Typical applications of NIR spectroscopy include the analysis of food products, pharmaceuticals, combustion products, and a major branch of astronomical spectroscopy. Near-infrared spectroscopy is in astronomy for studying the atmospheres of cool stars where molecules can form. Near-infrared spectroscopy is widely applied in agriculture for determining the quality of forages, grains, and grain products, oilseeds, coffee, tea, spices, fruits, vegetables, sugarcane, beverages, fats, and oils, dairy products, eggs, meat, and other agricultural products. Techniques have been developed for NIR spectroscopic imaging.

Hyperspectral imaging has been applied for a wide range of uses, including the remote investigation of plants and soils. Data can be collected from instruments on airplanes or satellites to assess ground cover and soil chemistry. Remote monitoring or remote sensing from the NIR spectroscopic region can also be used to study the atmosphere. Techniques have been developed for NIR spectroscopy of microscopic sample areas for film thickness measurements, research into the optical characteristics of nanoparticles and optical coatings for the telecommunications industry. The application of NIRS in Medicine centres on its ability to provide information about the oxygen saturation of haemoglobin within the microcirculation. When a specific area of the brain is activated, the localized blood volume in that area changes quickly. Optical imaging can measure the location and activity of specific regions of the brain by continuously monitoring blood hemoglobin levels through the determination of optical absorption coefficients.

Infrascanner 1000, a NIRS scanner used to detect intracranial bleeding. NIRS can be used as a quick screening tool for possible intracranial bleeding cases by placing the scanner on four locations on the head. In non-injured patients the brain absorbs the NIR light evenly. When there is an internal bleeding from an injury, the blood may be concentrated in one location causing the NIR light to be absorbed more than other locations, which the scanner detects.

The above two have eight layers of tissue rather than six.
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