Biotechnology research paper
Biotechnology is the application of scientific and engineering principles biotechnology research paper the processing of materials by biological agents to provide goods and services.
From its inception, biotechnology has maintained a close relationship with society. Yet the formation of a new field, genetic engineering, would soon bring biotechnology to the forefront of science in society, and the intimate relationship between the scientific community, the public, and the government would ensue. The field of genetic engineering remains a heated topic of discussion in today’s society with the advent of gene therapy, stem cell research, cloning, and genetically modified food. Biotechnology arose from the field of zymotechnology or zymurgy, which began as a search for a better understanding of industrial fermentation, particularly beer. Beer was an important industrial, and not just social, commodity. In late 19th-century Germany, brewing contributed as much to the gross national product as steel, and taxes on alcohol proved to be significant sources of revenue to the government. The heyday and expansion of zymotechnology came in World War I in response to industrial needs to support the war.
Max Delbrück grew yeast on an immense scale during the war to biotechnology research paper 60 percent of Germany’s animal feed needs. With food shortages spreading and resources fading, some dreamed of a new industrial solution. The Hungarian Károly Ereky coined the word «biotechnology» in Hungary during 1919 to describe a technology based on converting raw materials into a more useful product. He built a slaughterhouse for a thousand pigs and also a fattening farm with space for 50,000 pigs, raising over 100,000 pigs a year.
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This catchword spread quickly after the First World War, as «biotechnology» entered German dictionaries and was taken up abroad by business-hungry private consultancies as far away as the United States. In Chicago, for example, the coming of prohibition at the end of World War I encouraged biological industries to create opportunities for new fermentation products, in particular a market for nonalcoholic drinks. The belief that the needs of an industrial society could be met by fermenting agricultural waste was an important ingredient of the «chemurgic movement. Fermentation-based processes generated products of ever-growing utility.
In the 1940s, penicillin was the most dramatic. While it was discovered in England, it was produced industrially in the U. Penicillin was viewed as a miracle drug that brought enormous profits and public expectations. Even greater expectations of biotechnology were raised during the 1960s by a process that grew single-cell protein.
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