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In the United States and some other countries, there are also some types of vocational, technical, or professional degrees that are referred to as doctorates. Professional doctorates have historically come about to meet the needs of practitioners in a variety of disciplines. The term doctor derives from Latin, meaning «teacher» or «instructor». Catholic church, which required the applicant to pass a test, to take an oath of allegiance and pay a fee. Middle Ages included only theology, law, and medicine. University doctoral training was a form of apprenticeship to a guild. The traditional term of study before new teachers were admitted to the guild of «Masters of Arts» was seven years, matching the apprenticeship term for other occupations.
University degrees, including doctorates, were originally restricted to men. The use and meaning of the doctorate has changed over time, and is subject to regional variations. For instance, until the early 20th century few academic staff or professors in English-speaking universities held doctorates, except for very senior scholars and those in holy orders. Professional doctorates developed in the United States from the 19th century onward.
The first professional doctorate to be offered in the United States was the M. The modern research degree, in the shape of the German-style Ph. 1960s, by which time the LLB was generally taken as a graduate degree. The older-style doctorates, now usually called higher doctorates in the United Kingdom, take much longer to complete, since candidates must buying a dissertation themselves to be leading experts in their subjects. These doctorates are now less common in some countries and are often awarded honoris causa.
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Since the Middle Ages, the number and types of doctorates awarded by universities has proliferated throughout the world. Practice varies from one country to another. While a doctorate usually entitles one to be addressed as «doctor», use of the title varies widely, depending on the type and the associated occupation. Research doctorates are awarded in recognition of academic research that is publishable, at least in principle, in a peer-reviewed academic journal. Criteria for admission to doctoral programs varies. Finland, a master’s degree is required.
The time required to complete a research doctorate varies from three years, excluding undergraduate study, to six years or more. Licentiate degrees vary widely in their meaning, and in a few countries are doctoral level qualifications. Sweden originally abolished the Licentiate in 1969 but reintroduced it in response to demands from business. It is not to be confused with Postdoctoral researcher. A higher tier of research doctorates may be awarded on the basis of a formally submitted portfolio of published research of a particularly high standard. Higher doctorates are often also awarded honoris causa when a university wishes to formally recognize an individual’s achievements and contributions to a particular field.
In contrast to the US, many countries reserve the term «doctorate» for research degrees and if, as in Canada and Australia, professional degrees bear the name «Doctor of «, etc. In the UK and Ireland, all doctorates are third cycle qualifications in the Bologna Process, comparable to US research doctorates. DPhil is normally used for doctorates purely by thesis. This section needs additional citations for verification.
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