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This method occurs in applied ethics and jurisprudence. Casuistry describes either a form of reasoning that is presumed to be acceptable, or a form of reasoning that is inherently unsound and deceptive. While a principle-based approach might claim that lying is always morally wrong, the casuist would argue that, depending upon the details of the case, lying might or might not be illegal or unethical. The casuist might conclude that a person is wrong to lie in legal testimony under oath, but might argue that lying actually is the best moral choice if the lie saves a life. Typically, casuistic reasoning begins with a clear-cut paradigmatic case. In legal reasoning, for example, this might be a precedent case, such as premeditated murder. From it, the casuist would ask how closely the given case currently under consideration matches the paradigmatic case.
Casuistry is a method of case reasoning especially useful in treating cases that involve moral dilemmas. It is a branch of applied ethics. It is also criticized for the use of inconsistent—or outright specious—application of rule to instance. This section needs additional citations for verification. Casuistry takes a relentlessly practical approach to morality. Rather than using theories as starting points, casuistry begins with an examination of cases. By drawing parallels between paradigms, or so-called «pure cases», and the case at hand, a casuist tries to determine a moral response appropriate to a particular case.
One of the strengths of casuistry is that it does not begin with, nor does it overemphasize, theoretical issues. It does not require practitioners to agree about ethical theories or evaluations before making policy. Since most people, and most cultures, substantially agree about most pure ethical situations, casuistry often creates ethical arguments that can persuade people of different ethnic, religious and philosophical beliefs to treat particular cases in the same ways. For this reason, casuistry is widely considered to be the basis for the English common law and its derivatives. Casuistry is prone to abuses wherever the analogies between cases are false. A British encyclopedia of 1900 claimed that it was «popularly regarded as an attempt to achieve holy ends case study synonym unholy means.
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Albert Jonsen and Stephen Toulmin, that a revival of casuistry occurred. Properly used, casuistry is powerful reasoning. The casuistic method was popular among Catholic thinkers in the early modern period, and not only among the Jesuits, as it is commonly thought. Certain kinds of casuistry were criticized by early Protestant theologians, because it was used in order to justify many of the abuses that they sought to reform. Moore dealt with casuistry in chapter 1. It has failed only because it is far too difficult a subject to be treated adequately in our present state of knowledge».
Since the 1960s, applied ethics has revived the ideas of casuistry in applying ethical reasoning to particular cases in law, bioethics, and business ethics, so the reputation of casuistry is somewhat rehabilitated. Pope Francis, a Jesuit, has criticised «the practice of setting general laws on the basis of exceptional cases» as casuistry. Dictionary of the History of Ideas. Letters on the Spirit of Patriotism and on the Idea of a Patriot King.
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