Critique on an article
Critique of Critique on an article, German title page.
Kritik der Urteilskraft in modern German. Answering the Question: What is Enlightenment? Critique of the Power of Judgment, is a 1790 book by the German philosopher Immanuel Kant. The first part of the book discusses the four possible aesthetic reflective judgments: the agreeable, the beautiful, the sublime, and the good. I can according to the peculiar constitution of my cognitive faculties judge concerning the possibility of these things and their production, in no other fashion than by conceiving for this a cause working according to design, i. The agreeable is a purely sensory judgment — judgments in the form of «This steak is good,» or «This chair is soft.
These are purely subjective judgments, based on inclination alone. The good is essentially a judgment that something is ethical — the judgment that something conforms with moral law, which, in the Kantian sense, is essentially a claim of modality — a coherence with a fixed and absolute notion of reason. It is in many ways the absolute opposite of the agreeable, in that it is a purely objective judgment — things are either moral or they are not, according to Kant. The remaining two judgments — the beautiful and the sublime — differ from both the agreeable and the good. They are what Kant refers to as «subjective universal» judgments.
This apparently oxymoronic term means that, in practice, the judgments are subjective, and are not tied to any absolute and determinate concept. The judgment that something is sublime is a judgment that it is critique on an article the limits of comprehension — that it is an object of fear. However, Kant makes clear that the object must not actually be threatening — it merely must be recognized as deserving of fear. In this section of the critique Kant also establishes a faculty of mind that is in many ways the inverse of judgment — the faculty of genius. Whereas judgment allows one to determine whether something is beautiful or sublime, genius allows one to produce what is beautiful or sublime. The second half of the Critique discusses teleological judgement.
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Kant writes about the biological as teleological, claiming that there are things, such as living beings, whose parts exist for the sake of their whole and their whole for the sake of their parts. This allows him to open a gap in the physical world: since these «organic» things cannot be brought under the rules that apply to all other appearances, what are we to do with them? Kant attempted to legitimize purposive categories in the life sciences, without a theological commitment. He recognized the concept of purpose has epistemological value for finality, while denying its implications about creative intentions at life and the universe’s source.
Kant held that there was no purpose represented in the aesthetic judgement of an object’s beauty. A pure aesthetic judgement excludes the object’s purpose. Hans-Georg Gadamer rejects Kantian aesthetics as ahistorical in his development of a historically-grounded hermeneutics. Schopenhauer noted that Kant was concerned with the analysis of abstract concepts, rather than with perceived objects.
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