Dissertion meaning Lumad are a group of Austronesian indigenous people in the southern Philippines.
It is a Cebuano term meaning «native» or «indigenous». The name Lumad grew out of the political awakening among tribes during the martial law regime of President Ferdinand Marcos. The choice of a Cebuano word was a bit ironic but they deemed it appropriate as the Lumad tribes do not have any other common language except Cebuano. The Lumad are the un-Islamized and un-Christianized Austronesian peoples of Mindanao. The term lumad excludes the Butuanons and Surigaonons, even though these two groups are also native to Mindanao.
The Blaan is an indigenous group that is concentrated in Davao del Sur and South Cotabato. They practice indigenous rituals while adapting to the way of life of modern Filipinos. The Bukidnon are one of the seven tribes in the Bukidnon dissertion meaning of Mindanao. Bukidnon tribes settle in the lowlands. Religious rites are presided by a baylan whose ordination is voluntary and may come from any sex.
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The Bukidnon Lumad is distinct and should not be confused with a few indigenous peoples scattered in the Visayas area who are also alternatively called Bukidnon. The word Higaonon is derived from the word «Higad» in the Higaonon dialect which means coastal plains and «Gaon» meaning ascend to the mountains. Taken together, Higaonon, means the people of the coastal plains that ascended to the mountains. Higaonons were formerly coastal people of the provinces as mentioned who resisted the Spanish occupation.
Driven to the hills and mountains these people continued to exist and fought for the preservation of the people, heritage and culture. The Mamanwa is a Negrito tribe often grouped together with the Lumad. These peoples are traditionally hunter-gatherers and consume a wide variety of wild plants, herbs, insects, and animals from tropical rainforest. The Mamanwa are categorized as having the «negrito» phenotype with dark skin, kinky hair, and short stature. However, recent genomic evidence suggests that the Mamanwa were one of the first populations to leave Africa along with peoples in New Guinea and Australia, and that they diverged from a common origin about 36,000 years ago. As a result, a substantial proportion of their diet includes starch-dense domesticated foods. The political system of the Mamanwa is informally democratic and age-structured.
Elders are respected and are expected to maintain peace and order within the tribe. The chieftain, called a Tambayon, usually takes over the duties of counseling tribal members, speaking at gatherings, and arbitrating disagreements. The chieftain may be a man or a woman, which is characteristic of other gender-egalitarian hunter-gatherer societies. They are genetically related to the Denisovans.
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