Economic term paper

Rate economic term paper change of Gross domestic product, world and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, since 1961.

Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time. It is conventionally measured as the percent rate of increase in real gross domestic product, or real GDP. Growth is usually calculated in real terms — i. The «rate of economic growth» refers to the geometric annual rate of growth in GDP between the first and the last year over a period of time. This growth rate is the trend in the average level of GDP over the period, which ignores the fluctuations in the GDP around this trend. Development of new goods and services also creates economic growth. The economic growth rate is calculated from data on GDP estimated by countries’ statistical agencies.

The rate of growth of GDP per capita is calculated from data on GDP and people for the initial and final periods included in the analysis of the analyst. Economists distinguish between short-run economic changes in production and long-run economic growth. Short-run variation in economic growth is termed the business cycle. Generally, economists attribute the ups and downs in the business cycle to fluctuations in aggregate demand. Increases in productivity lower the real cost of goods. Economic growth has traditionally been attributed to the accumulation of human and physical capital and the increase in productivity and creation of new goods arising from technological innovation.

Before industrialization technological progress resulted in an increase in the population, which was kept in check by food supply and other resources, which acted to limit per capita income, a condition known as the Malthusian trap. The balance of the growth in output has economic from using more inputs. Both of these changes increase output. During the Industrial Revolution, mechanization began to replace hand methods term manufacturing, and new processes streamlined production of chemicals, paper, steel, and other products.

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During the Second Industrial Revolution, a major factor of productivity growth was the substitution of inanimate power for human and animal labor. Productivity lowered the cost of most items in terms of work time required to purchase. Real food prices fell due to improvements in transportation and trade, mechanized agriculture, fertilizers, scientific farming and the Green Revolution. Great sources of productivity improvement in the late 19th century were railroads, steam ships, horse-pulled reapers and combine harvesters, and steam-powered factories.

Mass production of the 1920s created overproduction, which was arguably one of several causes of the Great Depression of the 1930s. Economic growth in the United States slowed down after 1973. In contrast growth in Asia has been strong since then, starting with Japan and spreading to Korea, China, the Indian subcontinent and other parts of Asia. Productivity in the United States grew at an increasing rate throughout the 19th century and was most rapid in the early to middle decades of the 20th century.

The work week declined considerably over the 19th century. By the 1920s the average work week in the U. Demographic factors may influence growth by changing the employment to population ratio and the labor force participation rate. Women with fewer children and better access to market employment tend to join the labor force in higher percentages. There is a reduced demand for child labor and children spend more years in school. The increase in the percentage of women in the labor force in the U.

Many theoretical and empirical analyses of economic growth attribute a major role to a country’s level of human capital, defined as the skills of the population or the work force. Human capital has been included in both neoclassical and endogenous growth models. A country’s level of human capital is difficult to measure, since it is created at home, at school, and on the job. One problem with the schooling attainment measure is that the amount of human capital acquired in a year of schooling is not the same at all levels of schooling and is not the same in all countries. This measure also presumes that human capital is only developed in formal schooling, contrary to the extensive evidence that families, neighborhoods, peers, and health also contribute to the development of human capital.

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