Medical case studies

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Please forward this error screen to host. Enter the characters you see below Sorry, we just need to make sure you’re not a robot. General Science Journals Today’s science is interdisciplinary in nature. We report a case of a 27 year-old indian female who presented with a 6 month history of low back pain and a mass per abdomen. Objective: Poor nutritional status had been associated with the diet quality and grocery shopping practices.

Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about imaging techniques and modalities for the human body. For imaging of animals in research, see Preclinical imaging. This article needs additional citations for verification. Medical imaging seeks to reveal internal structures hidden by the skin and bones, as well as to diagnose and treat disease. Up until 2010, 5 billion medical imaging studies had been conducted worldwide.

Medical imaging is often perceived to designate the set of techniques that noninvasively produce images of the medical case studies aspect of the body. In this restricted sense, medical imaging can be seen as the solution of mathematical inverse problems. The term noninvasive is used to denote a procedure where no instrument is introduced into a patient’s body which is the case for most imaging techniques used. The results of a CT scan of the head are shown as successive transverse sections.

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An MRI machine generates a magnetic field around a patient. PET scans use radiopharmaceuticals to create images of active blood flow and physiologic activity of the organ or organs being targeted. Visible light» medical imaging involves digital video or still pictures that can be seen without special equipment. Two forms of radiographic images are in use in medical imaging. Projection radiography and fluoroscopy, with the latter being useful for catheter guidance. These 2D techniques are still in wide use despite the advance of 3D tomography due to the low cost, high resolution, and depending on the application, lower radiation dosages with 2D technique.

Fluoroscopy produces real-time images of internal structures of the body in a similar fashion to radiography, but employs a constant input of x-rays, at a lower dose rate. Contrast media, such as barium, iodine, and air are used to visualize internal organs as they work. Projectional radiographs, more commonly known as x-rays, are often used to determine the type and extent of a fracture as well as for detecting pathological changes in the lungs. Like CT, MRI traditionally creates a two-dimensional image of a thin «slice» of the body and is therefore considered a tomographic imaging technique. Modern MRI instruments are capable of producing images in the form of 3D blocks, which may be considered a generalization of the single-slice, tomographic, concept. Because CT and MRI are sensitive to different tissue properties, the appearances of the images obtained with the two techniques differ markedly.

In CT, X-rays must be blocked by some form of dense tissue to create an image, so the image quality when looking at soft tissues will be poor. Nuclear medicine uses certain properties of isotopes and the energetic particles emitted from radioactive material to diagnose or treat various pathology. Then, gamma cameras capture and form two-dimensional images from the radiation emitted by the radiopharmaceuticals. SPECT is a 3D tomographic technique that uses gamma camera data from many projections and can be reconstructed in different planes.

A dual detector head gamma camera combined with a CT scanner, which provides localization of functional SPECT data, is termed a SPECT-CT camera, and has shown utility in advancing the field of molecular imaging. Short-lived positron emitting isotope, such as 18F, is incorporated with an organic substance such as glucose, creating F18-fluorodeoxyglucose, which can be used as a marker of metabolic utilization. Fiduciary markers are used in a wide range of medical imaging applications. In this case, a marker which is visible in the images produced by both imaging modalities must be used. This is commonly associated with imaging the fetus in pregnant women. Elastography is a relatively new imaging modality that maps the elastic properties of soft tissue.

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The always on culture and its implication for managing the work and home domains is discussed in the next section.

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