Paper conclusion

Reviews in the paper conclusion literature have found no link between the MMR vaccine and autism or bowel disease.

Most of Wakefield’s coauthors later retracted the conclusions of the original paper proposing the hypothesis, and the General Medical Council found Wakefield guilty of manipulating patient data and misreporting results. Until the 1970s, autism was rarely accepted to be a distinctive diagnosis, but, following changes to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association it is diagnosed much more often. MMR vaccine in eight of the children diagnosed with developmental disorders. The most consistent report was lymphoid nodular hyperplasia of the terminal ileum in nine of the children. This feature has also been reported to be very common in non-autistic children.

In some affected children, impaired cellular immunity to common recall antigens, with low numbers of circulating white blood cells were reported. A specific measles protein signal is claimed to have been detected in inflamed lymphoid tissue. In some cases, loss of speech and language, bowel disturbances, self-injury, and a self-limited diet, associated with cravings for particular foods. Allergies, food intolerances are also reported in some children. A 2011 article in the British Medical Journal described how the data in the study had been falsified by Wakefield so it would arrive at a predetermined conclusion. Wakefield has hypothesized that autistic enterocolitis is an emergent IBD phenotype that follows from exposure to the vaccinations given to children during a period when their immune systems are rapidly developing.

Other research, however, rejects this hypothesis, and other groups have not reproduced Wakefield’s findings. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. The Lancet paper has been widely cited as an impetus for concerns regarding the MMR vaccine being a cause of autism. Wakefield gave interviews after the publication of the paper, including on 60 Minutes where he raised concerns regarding administration of the MMR vaccine. We did not prove an association between measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine and the syndrome described. Virological studies are underway that may help to resolve this issue» This paper was partially retracted in 2004, then fully retracted in 2010.

In 2004, 10 of the 12 authors issued a statement in the Lancet entitled «Retraction of an interpretation». In this, the authors retracted the conclusion section of the paper, formally known in the Lancet and in many biomedical journals, as the «interpretation». We identified associated gastrointestinal disease and developmental regression in a group of previously normal children, which was generally associated in time with possible environmental triggers. We wish to make it clear that in this paper no causal link was established between MMR vaccine and autism as the data were insufficient. However, the possibility of such a link was raised and consequent events have had major implications for public health.

In view of this, we consider now is the appropriate time that we should together formally retract the interpretation placed upon these findings in the paper, according to precedent. The main thrust of this paper was the first description of an unexpected intestinal lesion in the paper conclusion reported. Further evidence has been forthcoming in studies from the Royal Free Centre for Paediatric Gastroenterology and other groups to support and extend these findings. 55,000 in August 1996 from lawyers preparing to sue MMR manufacturers for support of Wakefield’s research.

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Wakefield, who did not sign the retraction, currently faces disciplinary charges before the General Medical Council over the conduct of this research. In February 2009 The Sunday Times reported that Wakefield had manipulated patient data and misreported results in his 1998 paper, creating the appearance of a link with autism. In response to the GMC investigation and findings, the editors of The Lancet announced on 2 February 2010 that they «fully retract this paper from the published record. In February 2012, the Cochrane Library published its analysis of dozens of «high quality» medical studies which concluded no link could be found between the MMR vaccine and bowel disease, autism or other pervasive developmental disorders. To be sure, the petitioners in this case have stressed that they rely upon Dr Krigsman as their expert concerning the causation of GI symptoms, not Dr Wakefield.

Thus, they argue that criticisms of the personal integrity of Dr Wakefield are not relevant here. Lancet journal retracts Andrew Wakefield MMR scare paper». Archived from the original on 2010-02-03. Buie T, Campbell DB, Fuchs GJ, et al. Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders in Individuals With ASDs: A Consensus Report».

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Comment on The Comparative Study of Easy research papers and the Purposive Cultivation of Democratic Values, by Margaret Mead.

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