Peer review papers
Peer review papers statement Thomas Roulet does not work for, consult to, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and has no relevant affiliations.
Andre Spicer does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment. City, University of London provides funding as a founding partner of The Conversation UK. University of Oxford provides funding as a member of The Conversation UK. Peer review is one of the gold standards of science. By doing this, they aim to ensure the work is rigorous, coherent, uses past research and adds to what we already knew. Most scientific journals, conferences and grant applications have some sort of peer review system.
The intention behind this system is to ensure evaluation is not biased. The more prestigious the journal, conference, or grant, the more demanding will be the review process, and the more likely the rejection. This prestige is why these papers tend to be more read and more cited. The process in details The peer review process for journals involves at least three peer review papers. When a paper is submitted to a journal, it receives an initial evaluation by the chief editor, or an associate editor with relevant expertise. Generally, papers are desk rejected if the paper doesn’t fit the scope of the journal or there is a fundamental flaw which makes it unfit for publication.
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In this case, the rejecting editors might write a letter summarising his or her concerns. Some journals, such as the British Medical Journal, desk reject up to two-thirds or more of the papers. If the editorial team judges there are no fundamental flaws, they send it for review to blind referees. The number of reviewers depends on the field: in finance there might be only one reviewer, while journals in other fields of social sciences might ask up to four reviewers. Those reviewers are selected by the editor on the basis of their expert knowledge and their absence of a link with the authors.
This means the author needs to change the paper in line with the reviewers’ concerns. The editor collects those comments, weights them, takes a decision, and writes a letter summarising the reviewers’ and his or her own concerns. It can therefore happen that despite hostility on the part of the reviewers, the editor could offer the paper a subsequent round of revision. The process is repeated as many times as necessary for the editor to reach a consensus point on whether to accept or reject the paper. In some cases this can last for several years. Strengths and weaknesses of the peer review process The peer review process is seen as the gold standard in science because it ensures the rigour, novelty, and consistency of academic outputs.
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