Peer reviewed studies
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It is not to be confused with The Independent Review. The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. A reviewer at the American National Institutes of Health evaluates a grant proposal. It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within the relevant field. Professional peer review focuses on the performance of professionals, with a view to improving quality, upholding standards, or providing certification. In academia, peer review is used to inform in decisions related to faculty advancement and tenure.
He stated that a visiting physician had to make duplicate notes of a patient’s condition on every visit. Professional peer review is common in the field of health care, where it is usually called clinical peer review. Further, since peer review activity is commonly segmented by clinical discipline, there is also physician peer review, nursing peer review, dentistry peer review, etc. Peer review is used in education to achieve certain learning objectives, particularly as a tool to reach higher order processes in the affective and cognitive domains as defined by Bloom’s taxonomy. This may take a variety of forms, including closely mimicking the scholarly peer review processes used in science and medicine. The European Union has been using peer review in the «Open Method of Co-ordination» of policies in the fields of active labour market policy since 1999.
The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, through UNECE Environmental Performance Reviews, uses peer reviewed studies review, referred to as «peer learning», to evaluate progress made by its member countries in improving their environmental policies. The State of California is the only U. Chapter 295, statutes of 1997, which mandates that, before any CalEPA Board, Department, or Office adopts a final version of a rule-making, the scientific findings, conclusions, and assumptions on which the proposed rule are based must be submitted for independent external scientific peer review. To an outsider, the anonymous, pre-publication peer review process is opaque. Certain journals are accused of not carrying out stringent peer review in order to more easily expand their customer base, particularly in journals where authors pay a fee before publication. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.
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Henry Oldenburg: shaping the Royal Society. The history of the peer-review process». Clinical peer review: burnishing a tarnished image». Dental Examinations for Quality Control: Peer Review versus Self-Assessment». Documenting the scholarship of clinical teaching through peer review». Haynes RB, Cotoi C, Holland J, et al.
Second-order peer review of the medical literature for clinical practitioners». Crisis or Time for Course Correction? The peer review drugs don’t work». Peer review ‘works against’ early career researchers».
Clinical peer review, also known as medical peer review is the process by which health care professionals, including those in nursing and pharmacy, evaluate each other’s clinical performance. Today, clinical peer review is most commonly done in hospitals, but may also occur in other practice settings including surgical centers and large group practices. The primary purpose of peer review is to improve the quality and safety of care. Secondarily, it serves to reduce the organization’s vicarious malpractice liability and meet regulatory requirements. In the US, these include accreditation, licensure and Medicare participation.
Clinical peer review should be distinguished from the peer review that medical journals use to evaluate the merits of a scientific manuscript, from the peer review process used to evaluate health care research grant applications, and, also, from the process by which clinical teaching might be evaluated. In US hospital settings, clinical peer review encompasses a wide variety of activities, whose scope varies across institutions. From a legal and regulatory perspective, however, the line is blurred. Medical staffs generally rely on generic screens for adverse events to identify cases for peer review, even though that might not be the most efficient or effective method.
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