The research paper

In logic, the research paper often refer to the two broad methods of reasoning as the deductive and inductive approaches.

Deductive reasoning works from the more general to the more specific. Sometimes this is informally called a «top-down» approach. We might begin with thinking up a theory about our topic of interest. We then narrow that down into more specific hypotheses that we can test. We narrow down even further when we the research paper observations to address the hypotheses. Inductive reasoning works the other way, moving from specific observations to broader generalizations and theories.

Writing a research essay

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These two methods of reasoning have a very different «feel» to them when you’re conducting research. Inductive reasoning, by its very nature, is more open-ended and exploratory, especially at the beginning. Deductive reasoning is more narrow in nature and is concerned with testing or confirming hypotheses. Introduction We discovered serious weaknesses in WPA2, a protocol that secures all modern protected Wi-Fi networks. Concretely, attackers can use this novel attack technique to read information that was previously assumed to be safely encrypted.

The weaknesses are in the Wi-Fi standard itself, and not in individual products or implementations. Therefore, any correct implementation of WPA2 is likely affected. To prevent the attack, users must update affected products as soon as security updates become available. Note that if your device supports Wi-Fi, it is most likely affected. Our detailed research paper can already be downloaded. Update October 2018: we have a follow-up paper where we generalize attacks, analyze more handshakes, bypass Wi-Fi’s official defense, audit patches, and enhance attacks using implementation-specific bugs.

Demonstration As a proof-of-concept we executed a key reinstallation attack against an Android smartphone. In this demonstration, the attacker is able to decrypt all data that the victim transmits. For an attacker this is easy to accomplish, because our key reinstallation attack is exceptionally devastating against Linux and Android 6. In general, any data or information that the victim transmits can be decrypted. Details Our main attack is against the 4-way handshake of the WPA2 protocol. At the same time, the 4-way handshake also negotiates a fresh encryption key that will be used to encrypt all subsequent traffic.

Key reinstallation attacks: high level description In a key reinstallation attack, the adversary tricks a victim into reinstalling an already-in-use key. This is achieved by manipulating and replaying cryptographic handshake messages. Key reinstallation attacks: concrete example against the 4-way handshake As described in the introduction of the research paper, the idea behind a key reinstallation attack can be summarized as follows. When a client joins a network, it executes the 4-way handshake to negotiate a fresh encryption key.

They critical reading and critical thinking to prefer context for possible issues in your application.
Thus, even when it believes itself to be talking about centrifugal force, centripetal force or gravity, it is in fact always making assertions about the whole phenomenon.

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