For Wikipedia policies work essays plagiarism, see Wikipedia:Plagiarism and Wikipedia:Copyright violations.
Plagiarism is the «wrongful appropriation» and «stealing and publication» of another author’s «language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions» and the representation of them as one’s own original work. Plagiarism is considered academic dishonesty and a breach of journalistic ethics. It is subject to sanctions such as penalties, suspension, and even expulsion from school or work. Plagiarism is not in itself a crime, but can constitute copyright infringement. In academia and industry, it is a serious ethical offense. Roman poet Martial, who complained that another poet had «kidnapped his verses». The derived form plagiarism was introduced into English around 1620.
Although plagiarism in some contexts is considered theft or stealing, the concept does not exist in a legal sense, although the use of someone else’s work in order to gain academic credit may meet some legal definitions of fraud. Plagiarism is not the same as copyright infringement. While both terms may apply to a particular act, they are different concepts, and false claims of authorship generally constitute plagiarism regardless of whether the material is protected by copyright. Copyright infringement is a violation of the rights of a copyright holder, when material whose use is restricted by copyright is used without consent.
Within essays, plagiarism by students, professors, or researchers is considered academic dishonesty or academic fraud, and offenders are subject to academic censure, up to and including expulsion. An extreme form of plagiarism, known as contract cheating involves students paying someone work, such as an essay mill, to do their work for them. In journalism, plagiarism is considered a breach of journalistic ethics, and reporters caught plagiarizing typically face disciplinary measures ranging from suspension to termination of employment.
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For professors and researchers, plagiarism is punished by sanctions ranging from suspension to termination, along with the loss of credibility and perceived integrity. Charges of plagiarism against students and professors are typically heard by internal disciplinary committees, by which students and professors have agreed to be bound. One form of academic plagiarism involves appropriating a published article and modifying it slightly to avoid suspicion. Gipp is an abridged version of Teddi Fishman’s definition of plagiarism, which proposed five elements characteristic of plagiarism. Stanford sees plagiarism as the «use, without giving reasonable and appropriate credit to or acknowledging the author or source, of another person’s original work, whether such work is made up of code, formulas, ideas, language, research, strategies, writing or other form.
Yale views plagiarism as the » use of another’s work, words, or ideas without attribution,» which includes » using a source’s language without quoting, using information from a source without attribution, and paraphrasing a source in a form that stays too close to the original. Oxford College of Emory University characterizes plagiarism as the use of «a writer’s ideas or phraseology without giving due credit. Naval Academy defines plagiarism as «the use of the words, information, insights, or ideas of another without crediting that person through proper citation. Submitting someone’s work as their own. Taking passages from their own previous work without adding citations. Re-writing someone’s work without properly citing sources. Using quotations, but not citing the source.
Interweaving various sources together in the work without citing. Citing some, but not all passages that should be cited. Melding together cited and uncited sections of the piece. Providing proper citations, but fails to change the structure and wording of the borrowed ideas enough.
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A wide range of supervisory arrangements can be found in the British academy, from most cited books on ap lit exam essays supervisors (more usual for undergraduate and Masters level work) to supervisory teams of up to three supervisors.
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